In my adaption for machinima film, King Arthur having recovered Bran The Blessed's talking Head, brings this head to a Samhain gathering where Bran recites The Song of Amergin to the assembled gathering.....
On The Song of Amergin,
The Song of Amergin is an ancient Celtic poem which speaks of the origin of the Universe, the nature of the Gods and the path to Wisdom.
Taken from The Irish Book of Invasions first written down in the early medieval period, this poem is attributed to Amergin (Irish;Amhairghin) chief Bard and Druid of the Milesians.
Long after the magical Tuatha Dé Danann, the Faerie Clan who were considered as Gods, had established their kingdom in ancient Ireland or Éire, a new invasion took place and the first Gaelic people arrived.
The Tuatha Dé Danann's High King, The Dagda, invoked his powers to repel the strangers, he sank their ships and prayed to the winds to keep them out.
They landed however and Amergin sang a poem of thanks, aligning himself with the powers of the Land. Through his Awen (poetic inspiration) he became the elements and the Cosmos, charging them with his flowing spirit and limitless understanding, he overcame all obstacles and his people took guardianship of the Land.
& How Graves Reveals A Dolmen Stone Alphabet;
Robert Graves has said that 'English poetic education should really begin not with Canterbury Tales, not with the Odyssey, not even with Genesis, but with the Song of Amergin'
By answering a series of riddles in an ancient Welsh 'Book of Taliesin', Robert Graves first uncovered 'The Battle of the Trees'. This was a poetic ‘battle’ apparently charged with the purpose of preserving the hidden Druidic knowledge of a secret tree alphabet or Ogham, from the uninitiated during a time of cultural upheaval as the newly arrived Christianity sought to replace the earlier pagan and Druid traditions.
Then considering its Irish poetic counterpart 'The Song of Amergin', Graves discovered the use of a similar alphabet that also operated as an ancient Celtic calendar.
By strictly adhering to the poem’s structure, Graves worked out the proper sequence of the Irish alphabet, which was then comprised of 13 consonants and five vowels. (It is only later that it grew to 15 consonants).
‘The clue to the arrangement of this alphabet is found in Amergin’s reference to the dolmen,’ says Graves. “It is an alphabet that bests explains itself when built up as a dolmen of consonants with a threshold of vowels.’
Dec 24-Jan. 20 B
I am a stag of the seven tines, (Birch/Beth)
Jan. 21—Feb. 17 L
I am a wide flood on a plain, (Rowan/Luis)
Feb. 18—Mar. 17 N
I am a wind on the deep waters, (Ash/Nion)
Mar. 18-Apr. 14 F
I am a shining tear of the sun, (Alder/Fearn)
Apr. 15-May 12 S sun,
I am a hawk on a cliff, (Willow/Saille)
May 13-Jun. 9 H
I am fair among flowers, (Hawthorn/Uath)
Jun. 10-July 7 D
I am a god who sets the head afire with smoke, (Oak/Duir)
July 8-Aug. 4 T
I am a battle-waging spear, (Holly/Tinne)
Aug. 5-Sept 1 C
I am a salmon in the pool, (Hazel/Coll)
Sept. 2-Sept. 29 M
I am a hill of poetry, (Vine/Muin)
Sept. 30-Oct. 27 G
I am a ruthless boar, (Ivy/Gort)
Oct. 28-Nov. 24 NG
I am a threatening noise of the sea, (Reed/Ngetal)
Nov. 25-Dec. 22 R
I am a wave of the sea, (Elder/Ruis)
Who but I knows the secrets of the unhewn dolmen?
Poem by Amergin, Translation From The White Goddess, by Robert Graves.
The Song Of Amergin by celestialelff
Graves maintains that the architectural structure of the Dolmen with its horizontal capstone resting above two upright stone pillars, served as teaching tool for Druid priests on which the Irish alphabet was superimposed in sequential form on three separate slabs.
So for example starting upwards from the bottom left of the first stone are the letters B, L, N, and F. On the capstone from left to rights are the letters S, H, D, T and C. Descending downwards on the right pillar are the remaining consonants, M, G, NG, and R. Hidden below this stone formation thus reflecting the Celtic belief, ‘As above, so below,’ are placed the threshold of vowels, A, O, U, E and I.
Thus this alphabet Dolmen may serve as a calendar, with one post for Spring, another for Autumn, the lintel for Summer, the threshold for New Year's Day.
Of Graves Dolmen Ogham, Merlin and Stonehenge;
Graves' revelation of the dolmen being used as teaching model for the Irish alphabet makes the myth of Merlin transporting the stones of Stonehenge from Ireland to Salisbury enormously intriguing.
Perhaps the stones he ferried were more of a stone alphabet like runes. If so, there is a strong possibility of a similar alphabet in use at Stonehenge and this might also explain the legend of Merlin’s alleged role in its construction..
|William Blake. Jersualem.|
Taking Grave’s analysis of the Song of Amergin a step further, the final riddle, 'Who but I knows the secrets of the unhewn dolmen?' raises questions about whether Stonehenge could be 'read' like a book.
Graves suggests that much like Braille, the dolmen’s dimples, indented grooves and angles are an essential part of reading the alphabet and hence the stone.
|example 1. Ogham stone.|
|example 2. Ogham text.|
''If one Dolmen can be used as a teaching tool on which the Irish alphabet was placed, could not an entire circle of stones tell a tale?
If it were possible, we can surmise that it could be a revelatory, almighty epic''. ( Munya Andrews )
Of Bran The Blessed;
Brân the Blessed (Bendigeidfran, the 'Blessed Raven') was a central figure in The Mabinogion, counted as Britain's greatest champion before King Arthur and one of the 'Three Blessed Kings of Britain' according to the ancient Triads.
He was also Guardian of a magical Cauldron of Knowledge and Rebirth from the Goddess Cerridwen.
There is an ancient Celtic tradition about Cauldrons of rebirth, into which wounded, dead or dying soldiers were plunged, and came out healed and reborn.
Several scholars have also noted similarities between Brân and the Arthurian character of the Fisher King, keeper of the Holy Grail which also bestowed health, healing of wounds and disease upon its bearers. Further conjecture suggests that Cerridwen's cauldron is in in fact the Holy Grail for which King Arthur spent his life searching as noted in Taliesin' poem, the 'Spoils of the Annwfn'
Following a conflict over Bran's sister Branwen,(the White Raven) after her wedding to the Irish King Matholwch (the Bear), Bran offers him reconciliation in the form of his Cauldron. However Matholwch mistreats Branwen in Ireland and she sends word for Bran to rescue her. On their arrival the Irish offer peace but actually plot treachery and a vicious battle breaks out.
The result of the battle was very catastrophic, every Irish citizen but five pregnant women lay dead, and of the mighty armies of Bran, only seven men survived.
These men were instructed by the mortally wounded Bran to decapitate him and bear his head to Caer-Lundein (London) to bury it at Gwynfryn, the 'White Mount' (where the Tower of London now stands) to protect the Isle.
On their return voyage the men chanced to enter the Otherworld and for seven years the seven survivors (symbolic of the seven planets that regularly descend into the Underworld and then rise from it) stayed in Harlech, entertained by Bran's head which taught them everything he had learned from the Goddess' Cauldron, passing on his wisdom for all future generations.
That Bran, the Raven's severed head was also capable of prophecy connects him with the ancient Celtic practice of augury, divination through bird flight.
The group set off again and land to spend a further 80 years outside of time, in a castle on Ynys Gwales, Grassholm Island off Dyfed, where they feasted in blissful forgetfulness and joy.
Eventually they take the head to the Gwynfryn, the 'White Mount' thought to be the location where the Tower of London now stands, and buried it facing France to ward off invasion.
According to the Welsh Triads, as long as Bran's head remained in The White Tower facing France to ward off Saxon invasion, Britain would be safe from invasion, which it was for many generations before it was dug up by the pious King Arthur. 'Arthur disclosed the head of Bran the Blessed from the White Hill since he did not desire that this island should be guarded by anyone’s strength but his own' - Welsh Triads.
King Arthur had declared that he needed no talisman to protect his own country and dug up Bran's head as proof that he could perform the requirements himself.
Sadly, he did not succeed and internal political conflict led to his death and to the increase of Saxon settlements in Britain.
|King Arthur Pendragon. 2011.|
More recently and following the ancient prophecies and the Celtic belief in reincarnation, the returned King Arthur has reburied a symbolic Ravens skull at The White Mount, Tower Of London, in an effort to resurrect the protective power of Bran in these troubled times.
A footnote upon Samhain;
The night of Samhain (pr; SOW-in, SAH-vin, or SAM-hayne) marks one of the two great gates of the year; Beltane and Samhain being the doorways that divide the year into Light and Dark.
Samhain itself is a Gaelic word signifying the end of summer and begins at sunset October 31.
This is believed by many to be a magical time when the boundaries between the worlds of the living and dead become thinner, allowing spirits and other supernatural entities to pass between them.
Traditionally, Samhain was a time to take stock of the herds and grain supplies, to decide which animals would be slaughtered for the people and livestock to survive the winter. Bonfires played a large part in the festivities celebrated down through the last several centuries, and villagers were said to have cast the bones of the slaughtered cattle on the flames hence the name 'bone fires', some say these bones should then be 'read' for their prophetic powers.
With the community bonfire ablaze, the villagers extinguished all other fires. Each family then solemnly lit its hearth from the common flame, thus bonding the families of the village together.
The pagan Romans also identified Samhain with their own feast of the dead, the Lemuria,(observed in the days leading up to May 13).With Christianization, the festival in November (not the Roman festival in May) became All Hallows' Day on November 1 followed by All Souls' Day, on November 2.
Over time, the night of October 31 came to be called All Hallow's Eve, and the remnants festival dedicated to the dead eventually morphed into the secular holiday known as Halloween.
However, historian and author Ronald Hutton points out that while medieval Irish authors do attribute a historical pagan significance to the Beltane festival, they are silent in this respect in regard to Samhain, apparently because no evidence of pagan ritual as a Northern European festival of the dead had survived into the Christian period. According to Hutton, most of the popular myths about the origins of Halloween can be tracedback to two nineteenth century British authors: Sir John Rhys and Sir James Frazer (The Golden Bough) who speculated about connections between Halloween andpagan Celtic rituals, but provided no valid evidence to back up theirclaims. At the time they were writing, modern folk customs weretypically seen as remnants of prehistoric religious rituals whichsurvived among the common, uneducated country folk long after theiroriginal purpose had died out.
Whilst historian Nicholas Rogers notes that 'some folklorists have detected its origins in the Roman feast of Pomona, the goddess of fruits and seeds, or in the festival of the dead called Parentalia, by contrast Mr. Hutton claims it is more typically linked to and derived from the Catholic holidays of All Saints and All Souls Day. This festival began on All Hallows Eve (hallow is an archaic English word for 'saint') the last night of October, included a Church mass for the dead, torchlight processions and bonfires.
Objectively, Mr. Hutton does include the evidence for both of these latter in the earlier festivals.
Ronald Hutton, The Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britian, Oxford University Press, 1996 (See the followingchapters: 35. Samhain, 36. Saints and Souls, 37. The ModernHallowe'en)
The 'Surviving' Samhain and Halloween Tradition;
Conjecture over other aspects of this festival and following extrapolations from Beltane, the other great turning point in the Celtic world, supports many peoples views that a commemoration of the deceased could indeed have been an ancient tradition as the people saw nature fall to decay so thoughts naturally turned to loved ones also passed away. Many customs were also established, such as the approaching time of darkness being regarded with suspicion and a need for protection by bonefires and charms. Gatherings were held and still are, feasts and gifts were shared, blessings were given and invoked and the presence of spirits traveling between worlds is felt, these traditions inform our belief and practice today.
In such a view, offerings may be made to welcome specific ancestors and a community's beloved dead home, songs, poetry and dances can performed to entertain them.
The opening of door or window to the west lit with a candle or lamp is thought to aid their passage home and conversely candle lanterns carved with fearsome faces are placed in windows to ward off any unwelcome evil spirits abroad on this otherworldly night.
The custom of wearing costumes and masks, fancy dress or disguise has developed at this time and been considered an attempt to copy the spirits or to placate them. Such 'Guising' has been a part of Christmas and New Years Eve customs in Britain andother parts of Europe since medieval times. By the nineteenth centurythe practice had also become a feature of Halloween in Scotland and Ireland.
The practice of Trick-or-treating apparently originates in the late medieval practice of 'Souling', when poor folk would go door to door on Hallowmas (November 1), receiving food in return for prayers for the dead on All Souls' Day.
Sacred Samhain and Happy Hallowmas,
By Stone and Star
Celestial Elf ~